Frequently Asked Questions

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DNA testing allows us to differentiate ourselves individually from the rest of the population, and, by comparison with other individuals establish parency relationships (paternity, maternity, etc.). The DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is different for every human (except for identical twins), being equal in 50% to each of the biological parents.

Genetic fingerprinting is also called DNA testing or DNA fingerprinting. DNA analysis. It is the technique used to distinguish individuals from each other using samples of their DNA.
Humans share the vast majority of their genetic material, so in order to distinguish two individuals we analyze the repetition of highly variable sequences called microsatellites.
The genetic fingerprint of an individual is unique, and remains unalterable. throughout life and after the death of a person, so that serves to reliably identify individuals.

No, if the siblings are monozygotic twins (commonly called identical twins), they share the same genetic information; they are clones, so to speak. Therefore, it would not be possible to differentiate them through this analysis. However, dizygotic twins (commonly called fraternal twins) are different at the genetic level, as their resemblance is that of any two siblings.

It is a genetic study that aims to determine the biological parentage or first degree ascending genetic link between an individual and their male or female parent. It requires the matching of two biological samples.

For statistical reasons, the degree of certainty cannot reach 100%, the mathematical value reached will be resolute when both parents are involved. When alleles are present (forms of the same gene), compatible in all the markers analyzed, we calculate the probability that this person is the biological parent.

Can a paternity or maternity test determine with 100% certainty that the person in question IS NOT the biological father or mother, respectively, of another individual?

When samples are not available from one of the parents, it is possible to do a paternity/ maternity test using the genetic profile of the paternal/maternal grandparents, in addition to the profile of the available parent. The statistical calculation allows us to obtain a accuracy rate that is comparable to the paternity/maternity testing standard.

Can a paternity or maternity test determine with 100% certainty that the person in question IS NOT the biological father or mother, respectively, of another individual?

Yes. When alleles (alternative forms of the same gene), incompatible in any of the markers analyzed, it is possible to exclude the person as the biological parent.

The accuracy of biological parency testing depends on how much the relationship to be investigated (the more distant the relationship, the more (e.g., farther away, lower probability), of additional genetic information (the more relatives you have (the more relatives you analyze, the higher the probability) and of the genetic markers analyzed (the more markers, more likely). In addition, in certain cases, it will be necessary to to (quitar) resort to the study of mitochondrial DNA and/or the Y chromosome for to achieve sufficiently significant probabilities

PharmaMar’s genetic identification laboratory has the necessary technology to be able to analyze, with guaranteed results, any type of biological sample (blood, saliva, hair, sperm, blood stains, biopsies, bone remains, fingernails), or biological remains on other supports or objects (cigarette butts, pacifiers, chewing gum, socks, envelopes, brushes, glasses or cups). It is recommended that you consult us to optimize analysis and results.
We use cells from the buccal epithelium given the procedure is very simple and completely painless to obtain.

No. All the cells a person possesses has exactly the same DNA, so the accuracy and reliability of the results is the same, regardless of the biological material used.

Yes, the Genetic Identification laboratory can obtain information about the genealogy of any person who so requests. For this purpose, a study of the mitochondrial DNA of the individual (maternal lineage) and, in the case of the applicant being male, it is also possible to analyze the Y chromosome (paternal lineage).

The deadline for delivery of results is 15 working days, although a 5-day express service is also available.

Yes, the report with the result of the test will be delivered exclusively to the applicant by the means requested.

The private or informative paternity/maternity test, is to determine the biological link between two people for private and personal use. It may be anonymous, without the need for the applicants to identify themselves and the taking of the sample can be carried out by the applicant themselves at their home, if they so desire, and to receive the results without the need to travel.
The “legal or judicial” paternity/ maternity test is evidentiary so, therefore, should be carried out by guaranteeing the identification of the individuals and maintenance of the chain of custody of the products samples, from sample collection to analysis. This type of test is frequently used in civil family proceedings such as divorces, inheritance, pensions and child custody, as well as in immigration proceedings for reunification or nationality. The taking of samples must be taken at a partner center or at our facilities.

The admissibility of DNA evidence in courts of law is contingent upon a correct process of collection, identification and sending of samples to the laboratories, i.e., establish and maintenance of the chain of custody. In order to carry out the identification of the samples, it is necessary to provide the ID cards or passports of the persons involved in the analysis. In the case of minors who do not have the required documents a recent photograph must be provided.

Yes. At present, it is not necessary to obtain the express authorization of the other parent in order for this evidence to have probative capacity in Spanish courts of justice. It is the judge themselves who must accept or not the genetic report as evidence if one of the parents has not given their express consent.

It determines whether or not the sample tested contains sperm. If it does, DNA fingerprinting could be determined at a later date, for collation.

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